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Regulations

Regulation 21 - APPENDIX 1: DEFINITIONS

[1] ADAMS: The Anti-Doping Administration and Management System is a Web-based database management tool for data entry, storage, sharing, and reporting designed to assist stakeholders and WADA in their anti-doping operations in conjunction with data protection legislation.

Administration: Providing, supplying, supervising, facilitating, or otherwise participating in the Use or Attempted Use by another Person of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method. However, this definition shall not include the actions of bona fide medical personnel involving a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method used for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or other acceptable justification and shall not include actions involving Prohibited Substances which are not prohibited in Out-of-Competition Testing unless the circumstances as a whole demonstrate that such Prohibited Substances are not intended for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or are intended to enhance sport performance.

Adverse Analytical Finding: A report from a WADA-accredited laboratory or other WADA-approved laboratory that, consistent with the International Standard for Laboratories, establishes in a Sample the presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers or evidence of the Use of a Prohibited Method.

Adverse Passport Finding: A report identified as an Adverse Passport Finding as described in the applicable International Standards.

Aggravating Circumstances: Circumstances involving, or actions by, a Player or other Person which may justify the imposition of a period of Ineligibility greater than the standard sanction. Such circumstances and actions shall include, but are not limited to: the Player or other Person Used or Possessed multiple Prohibited Substances or Prohibited Methods, Used or Possessed a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method on multiple occasions or committed multiple other anti-doping rule violations; a normal individual would be likely to enjoy the performance-enhancing effects of the anti-doping rule violation(s) beyond the otherwise applicable period of Ineligibility; the Player or Person engaged in deceptive or obstructive conduct to avoid the detection or adjudication of an anti-doping rule violation; or the Player or other Person engaged in Tampering during Results Management. For the avoidance of doubt, the examples of circumstances and conduct described herein are not exclusive and other similar circumstances or conduct may also justify the imposition of a longer period of Ineligibility.

Anti-Doping Activities: Anti-doping Education and information, test distribution planning, maintenance of a Registered Testing Pool, managing Athlete Biological Passports, conducting Testing, organising analysis of Samples, gathering of intelligence and conduct of investigations, processing of TUE applications, Results Management, monitoring and enforcing compliance with any Consequences imposed, and all other activities related to anti-doping to be carried out by or on behalf of an Anti-Doping Organisation, as set out in the Code and/or the International Standards.

Anti-Doping Organisation: WADA or a Signatory that is responsible for adopting rules for initiating, implementing or enforcing any part of the Doping Control process. This includes, for example, the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, other Major Event Organisations that conduct Testing at their Events, International Federations, and NADOs.

Athlete Biological Passport: The programme and methods of gathering and collating data as described in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations and International Standard for Laboratories.

Attempt: Purposely engaging in conduct that constitutes a substantial step in a course of conduct planned to culminate in the commission of an anti-doping rule violation. Provided, however, there shall be no anti-doping rule violation based solely on an Attempt to commit a violation if the Person renounces the Attempt prior to it being discovered by a third party not involved in the Attempt.

Atypical Finding: A report from a WADA-accredited laboratory or other WADA-approved laboratory which requires further investigation as provided by the International Standard for Laboratories or related Technical Documents prior to the determination of an Adverse Analytical Finding.

Atypical Passport Finding: A report described as an Atypical Passport Finding as described in the applicable International Standards.

CAS: The Court of Arbitration for Sport.

Code: The World Anti-Doping Code.

Competition: A single Match whether in fifteen-a-side or an abbreviated form of the Game.

Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations (“Consequences”): A Player's or other Person's violation of an anti-doping rule may result in one or more of the following: (a) Disqualification means the Player’s results in a particular Competition or Event are invalidated, with all resulting Consequences including forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes; (b) Ineligibility means the Player or other Person is barred on account of an anti-doping rule violation for a specified period of time from participating in any Competition or other activity or funding as provided in Regulation 21.10.14; (c) Provisional Suspension means the Player or other Person is barred temporarily from participating in any Competition or activity prior to the final decision at a hearing conducted under Regulation 21.8; (d) Financial Consequences means a financial sanction imposed for an anti-doping rule violation or to recover costs associated with an anti-doping rule violation; and (e) Public Disclosure means the dissemination or distribution of information to the general public or Persons beyond those Persons entitled to earlier notification in accordance with Regulation 21.14. Teams in Team Sports may also be subject to Consequences as provided in Regulation 21.11.

Contaminated Product: A product that contains a Prohibited Substance that is not disclosed on the product label or in information available in a reasonable Internet search.

Decision Limit: The value of the result for a threshold substance in a Sample, above which an Adverse Analytical Finding shall be reported, as defined in the International Standard for Laboratories.

Delegated Third Party: Any Person to whom World Rugby delegates any aspect of Doping Control or anti-doping Education programmes including, but not limited to, third parties or other Anti-Doping Organisations that conduct Sample collection or other Doping Control services or anti-doping Educational programmes for World Rugby, or individuals serving as independent contractors who perform Doping Control services for World Rugby (e.g., non-employee Doping Control officers or chaperones). This definition does not include CAS.

Disqualification: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations above.

Doping Control: All steps and processes from test distribution planning through to ultimate disposition of any appeal and the enforcement of Consequences, including all steps and processes in between, including but not limited to Testing, investigations, whereabouts, TUEs, Sample collection and handling, laboratory analysis, Results Management, and investigations or proceedings relating to violations of Regulation 21.10.14 (Status During Ineligibility or Provisional Suspension).

Education: The process of learning to instill values and develop behaviours that foster and protect the spirit of sport, and to prevent intentional and unintentional doping.

Event: A series of individual Competitions conducted together under one ruling body (e.g., the Olympic Games, World Championships of an International Federation, or Pan American Games).

Event Period: The time between the beginning and end of an Event, as established by the ruling body of the Event.

Event Venues: Those venues so designated by the ruling body for the Event.

Fault: Fault is any breach of duty or any lack of care appropriate to a particular situation. Factors to be taken into consideration in assessing a Player’s or other Person’s degree of Fault include, for example, the Player’s or other Person’s experience, whether the Player or other Person is a Protected Person, special considerations such as impairment, the degree of risk that should have been perceived by the Player and the level of care and investigation exercised by the Player in relation to what should have been the perceived level of risk. In assessing the Player’s or other Person’s degree of Fault, the circumstances considered must be specific and relevant to explain the Player’s or other Person’s departure from the expected standard of behaviour. Thus, for example, the fact that a Player would lose the opportunity to earn large sums of money during a period of Ineligibility, or the fact that the Player only has a short time left in a career, or the timing of the sporting calendar, would not be relevant factors to be considered in reducing the period of Ineligibility under Regulation 21.10.6.1 or 21.10.6.2.[2]

Financial Consequences: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations above.

In-Competition: The period commencing at 11:59 p.m. on the day before a Competition in which the Player is scheduled to participate through the end of such Competition and the Sample collection process related to such Competition. Provided, however, WADA may approve, for a particular sport, an alternative definition if an International Federation provides a compelling justification that a different definition is necessary for its sport; upon such approval by WADA, the alternative definition shall be followed by all Major Event Organisations for that particular sport.[3]

Independent Observer Programme: A team of observers and/or auditors, under the supervision of WADA, who observe and provide guidance on the Doping Control process prior to or during certain Events and report on their observations as part of WADA’s compliance monitoring programme.

Individual Sport: Any sport that is not a Team Sport.

Ineligibility: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations above.

Institutional Independence: Hearing panels on appeal shall be fully independent institutionally from the Anti-Doping Organisation responsible for Results Management. They must therefore not in any way be administered by, connected or subject to the Anti-Doping Organisation responsible for Results Management.

International Event: An Event or Competition where the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, an International Federation, a Major Event Organisation, or another international sport organisation is the ruling body for the Event or appoints the technical officials for the Event.

International-Level Player: Players who compete in sport at the international level, as defined by each International Federation, consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. For the sport of rugby, International-Level Players are defined as set out in the Scope section of the Introduction to these Anti-Doping Rules.[4]

International Standard: A standard adopted by WADA in support of the Code. Compliance with an International Standard (as opposed to another alternative standard, practice, or procedure) shall be sufficient to conclude that the procedures addressed by the International Standard were performed properly. International Standards shall include any Technical Documents issued pursuant to the International Standard.

Major Event Organisations: The continental associations of National Olympic Committees and other international multi-sport organisations that function as the ruling body for any continental, regional or other International Event.

Marker: A compound, group of compounds or biological variable(s) that indicates the Use of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method.

Member of a Team: Any Player and/or other Participant associated with a team including for the avoidance of doubt without limitation all coaches, medical, team management and other similar Player Support Personnel.

Metabolite: Any substance produced by a biotransformation process.

Minimum Reporting Level: The estimated concentration of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolite(s) or Marker(s) in a Sample below which WADA-accredited laboratories should not report that Sample as an Adverse Analytical Finding.

Minor: A natural Person who has not reached the age of eighteen (18) years.

National Anti-Doping Organisation (NADO): The entity(ies) designated by each country as possessing the primary authority and responsibility to adopt and implement anti-doping rules, direct the collection of Samples, the management of test results, and the conduct of hearings at the national level. If this designation has not been made by the competent public authority(ies), the entity shall be the country’s National Olympic Committee or its designee.

National Event: A sport Event or Competition involving International- or National-Level Players that is not an International Event.

National-Level Player: Players who compete in sport at the national level, as defined by each NADO, consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

National Olympic Committee: The organisation recognised by the International Olympic Committee. The term National Olympic Committee shall also include the National Sport Confederation in those countries where the National Sport Confederation assumes typical National Olympic Committee responsibilities in the anti-doping area.

No Fault or Negligence: The Player or other Person's establishing that he did not know or suspect, and could not reasonably have known or suspected even with the exercise of utmost caution, that he had Used or been administered the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method or otherwise violated an anti-doping rule. Except in the case of a Protected Person or Recreational Player, for any violation of Regulation 21.2.1, the Player must also establish how the Prohibited Substance entered the Player’s system.

No Significant Fault or Negligence: The Player or other Person's establishing that any Fault or negligence, when viewed in the totality of the circumstances and taking into account the criteria for No Fault or Negligence, was not significant in relationship to the anti-doping rule violation. Except in the case of a Protected Person or Recreational Player, for any violation of Regulation 21.2.1, the Player must also establish how the Prohibited Substance entered the Player’s system.

Operational Independence: This means that (1) board members, staff members, commission members, consultants and officials of the Anti-Doping Organisation with responsibility for Results Management or its affiliates (e.g., member federation or confederation), as well as any Person involved in the investigation and pre-adjudication of the matter cannot be appointed as members and/or clerks (to the extent that such clerk is involved in the deliberation process and/or drafting of any decision) of hearing panels of that Anti-Doping Organisation with responsibility for Results Management and (2) hearing panels shall be in a position to conduct the hearing and decision-making process without interference from the Anti-Doping Organisation or any third party. The objective is to ensure that members of the hearing panel or individuals otherwise involved in the decision of the hearing panel, are not involved in the investigation of, or decisions to proceed with, the case.

Out-of-Competition: Any period which is not In-Competition.

Participant: Any Player or Player Support Person.

Person: A natural Person or an organisation or other entity.

Player: Any Person who competes in rugby at the international level (as defined by World Rugby) or the national level (as defined by each NADO). An Anti-Doping Organisation has discretion to apply anti-doping rules to a Player who is neither an International-Level Player nor a National-Level Player, and thus to bring them within the definition of “Player”. In relation to Players who are neither International-Level nor National-Level Players, an Anti-Doping Organisation may elect to: conduct limited Testing or no Testing at all; analyse Samples for less than the full menu of Prohibited Substances; require limited or no whereabouts information; or not require advance TUEs. However, if a Regulation 21.2.1, 21.2.3 or 21.2.5 anti-doping rule violation is committed by any Player over whom an Anti-Doping Organisation has elected to exercise its authority to test and who competes below the international or national level, then the Consequences set forth in the Code must be applied. For purposes of Regulation 21.2.8 and 21.2.9 and for purposes of anti-doping information and Education, any Person who participates in sport under the authority of any Signatory, government, or other sports organisation accepting the Code is a Player.[5]

Player Support Personnel: Any coach, trainer, manager, agent, team staff, official, medical, paramedical personnel, parent, or any other Person working with, treating or assisting a Player participating in or preparing for sports competition.

Possession: The actual, physical Possession, or the constructive Possession (which shall be found only if the Person has exclusive control or intends to exercise control over the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method or the premises in which a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method exists); provided, however, that if the Person does not have exclusive control over the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method or the premises in which a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method exists, constructive Possession shall only be found if the Person knew about the presence of the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method and intended to exercise control over it. Provided, however, there shall be no anti-doping rule violation based solely on Possession if, prior to receiving notification of any kind that the Person has committed an anti-doping rule violation, the Person has taken concrete action demonstrating that the Person never intended to have Possession and has renounced Possession by explicitly declaring it to an Anti-Doping Organisation. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this definition, the purchase (including by any electronic or other means) of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method constitutes Possession by the Person who makes the purchase.[6]

Prohibited List: The List identifying the Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods.

Prohibited Method: Any method so described on the Prohibited List.

Prohibited Substance: Any substance, or class of substances, so described on the Prohibited List.

Protected Person: A Player or other natural Person who at the time of the anti-doping rule violation: (i) has not reached the age of sixteen (16) years; (ii) has not reached the age of eighteen (18) years and is not included in any Registered Testing Pool and has never competed in any International Event in an open category; or (iii) for reasons other than age has been determined to lack legal capacity under applicable national legislation.[7]

Provisional Hearing: For purposes of Regulation 21.7.4.3, an expedited abbreviated hearing occurring prior to a hearing under Regulation 21.8 that provides the Player with notice and an opportunity to be heard in either written or oral form.[8]

Provisional Suspension: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations above.

Publicly Disclose: See Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations above.

Recreational Player: A natural Person who is so defined by the relevant NADO; provided, however, the term shall not include any Person who, within the five (5) years prior to committing any anti-doping rule violation, has been an International-Level Player (as defined by each International Federation consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations) or National-Level Player (as defined by each NADO consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations), has represented any country in an International Event in an open category or has been included within any Registered Testing Pool or other whereabouts information pool maintained by any International Federation or NADO.[9]

Regional Anti-Doping Organisation: A regional entity designated by member countries to coordinate and manage delegated areas of their national anti-doping programmes, which may include the adoption and implementation of anti-doping rules, the planning and collection of Samples, the management of results, the review of TUEs, the conduct of hearings, and the conduct of Educational programmes at a regional level.

Registered Testing Pool: The pool of highest-priority Players established separately at the international level by International Federations and at the national level by NADOs, who are subject to focused In-Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing as part of that International Federation's or NADO's test distribution plan and therefore are required to provide whereabouts information as provided in Regulation 21.5.5 and the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

Results Management: The process encompassing the timeframe between notification as per Article 5 of the International Standard for Results Management, or in certain cases (e.g., Atypical Finding, Athlete Biological Passport, whereabouts failure), such pre-notification steps expressly provided for in Article 5 of the International Standard for Results Management, through the charge until the final resolution of the matter, including the end of the hearing process at first instance or on appeal (if an appeal was lodged).

Sample or Specimen: Any biological material collected for the purposes of Doping Control.[10]

Signatories: Those entities accepting the Code and agreeing to implement the Code, as provided in Article 23 of the Code.

Specified Method: See Regulation 21.4.2.2.

Specified Substance: See Regulation 21.4.2.2.

Strict Liability: The rule which provides that under Regulation 21.2.1 and 21.2.2, it is not necessary that intent, Fault, negligence, or knowing Use on the Player’s part be demonstrated by the Anti-Doping Organisation in order to establish an anti-doping rule violation.

Substance of Abuse: See Regulation 21.4.2.3.

Substantial Assistance: For purposes of Regulation 21.10.7.1, a Person providing Substantial Assistance must: (1) fully disclose in a signed written statement or recorded interview all information he possesses in relation to anti-doping rule violations or other proceeding described in Regulation 21.10.7.1.1, and (2) fully cooperate with the investigation and adjudication of any case or matter related to that information, including, for example, presenting testimony at a hearing if requested to do so by an Anti-Doping Organisation or hearing panel. Further, the information provided must be credible and must comprise an important part of any case or proceeding which is initiated or, if no case or proceeding is initiated, must have provided a sufficient basis on which a case or proceeding could have been brought.

Tampering: Intentional conduct which subverts the Doping Control process but which would not otherwise be included in the definition of Prohibited Methods. Tampering shall include, without limitation, offering or accepting a bribe to perform or fail to perform an act, preventing the collection of a Sample, affecting or making impossible the analysis of a Sample, falsifying documents submitted to an Anti-Doping Organisation or TUE Committee or hearing panel, procuring false testimony from witnesses, committing any other fraudulent act upon the Anti-Doping Organisation or hearing body to affect Results Management or the imposition of Consequences, and any other similar intentional interference or Attempted interference with any aspect of Doping Control.[11]

Target Testing: Selection of specific Players for Testing based on criteria set forth in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

Team Sport: A sport in which the substitution of players is permitted during a Competition.

Technical Document: A document adopted and published by WADA from time to time containing mandatory technical requirements on specific anti-doping topics as set forth in an International Standard.

Testing: The parts of the Doping Control process involving test distribution planning, Sample collection, Sample handling, and Sample transport to the laboratory.

Testing Pool: World Rugby’s principal whereabouts and testing pool comprising International-Level Players who are eligible to be part of World Rugby’s Out of Competition Testing programme and who are not part of World Rugby’s Registered Testing Pool.

Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE): A Therapeutic Use Exemption allows a Player with a medical condition to use a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method, but only if the conditions set out in Regulation 21.4.4 and the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions are met.

TUE Committee (TUEC): The panel established by the relevant Anti-Doping Organisation to consider requests for TUEs.

Trafficking: Selling, giving, transporting, sending, delivering or distributing (or Possessing for any such purpose) a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method (either physically or by any electronic or other means) by a Player, Player Support Person or any other Person subject to the authority of an Anti-Doping Organisation to any third party; provided, however, this definition shall not include the actions of bona fide medical personnel involving a Prohibited Substance used for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or other acceptable justification, and shall not include actions involving Prohibited Substances which are not prohibited in Out-of-Competition Testing unless the circumstances as a whole demonstrate such Prohibited Substances are not intended for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or are intended to enhance sport performance.

UNESCO Convention: The International Convention against Doping in Sport adopted by the 33rd session of the UNESCO General Conference on 19 October 2005 including any and all amendments adopted by the States Parties to the Convention and the Conference of Parties to the International Convention against Doping in Sport.

Use: The utilization, application, ingestion, injection, or consumption by any means whatsoever of any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method.

WADA: The World Anti-Doping Agency.

Without Prejudice Agreement: For purposes of Regulation 21.10.7.1.1 and 21.10.8.2, a written agreement between an Anti-Doping Organisation and a Player or other Person that allows the Player or other Person to provide information to the Anti-Doping Organisation in a defined time-limited setting with the understanding that, if an agreement for Substantial Assistance or a case resolution agreement is not finalized, the information provided by the Player or other Person in this particular setting may not be used by the Anti-Doping Organisation against the Player or other Person in any Results Management proceeding under the Code, and that the information provided by the Anti-Doping Organisation in this particular setting may not be used by the Player or other Person against the Anti-Doping Organisation in any Results Management proceeding under the Code. Such an agreement shall not preclude the Anti-Doping Organisation, Player or other Person from using any information or evidence gathered from any source other than during the specific time-limited setting described in the agreement.

These definitions supersede any other definitions of these terms in these Regulations for the purposes of application to these Anti-Doping Rules.  All other terms which are capitalised in these Anti-Doping Rules and not defined herein shall have the meanings ascribed to them in Regulation 1. 

[1]     [Comment to Definitions: Defined terms shall include their plural and possessive forms, as well as those terms used as other parts of speech.]

[2]    [Comment to Fault: The criteria for assessing a Player’s degree of Fault is the same under all Regulations where Fault is to be considered. However, under Regulation 21.10.6.2, no reduction of sanction is appropriate unless, when the degree of Fault is assessed, the conclusion is that No Significant Fault or Negligence on the part of the Player or other Person was involved.]

[3]     [Comment to In-Competition: Having a universally accepted definition for In-Competition provides greater harmonization among Players across all sports, eliminates or reduces confusion among Players about the relevant timeframe for In-Competition Testing, avoids inadvertent Adverse Analytical Findings in between Competitions during an Event and assists in preventing any potential performance enhancement benefits from substances prohibited Out-of-Competition being carried over to the Competition period.]

[4]     [Comment to International-Level Player: Consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations, World Rugby is free to determine the criteria it will use to classify Players as International-Level Players, e.g., by ranking, by participation in particular International Events, by type of license, etc. However, it must publish those criteria in clear and concise form, so that Players are able to ascertain quickly and easily when they will become classified as International-Level Players. For example, if the criteria include participation in certain International Events, then World Rugby must publish a list of those International Events.]

[5]     [Comment to Player: Individuals who participate in sport may fall into one of five categories: 1) International-Level Player, 2) National-Level Player, 3) individuals who are not International- or National-Level Players but over whom the International Federation or NADO has chosen to exercise authority, 4) Recreational Player, and 5) individuals over whom no International Federation or NADO has, or has chosen to, exercise authority. All International- and National-Level Players are subject to the anti-doping rules of the Code, with the precise definitions of international and national level sport to be set forth in the anti-doping rules of the International Federations and NADOs.]

[6]     [Comment to Possession: Under this definition, anabolic steroids found in a Player's car would constitute a violation unless the Player establishes that someone else used the car; in that event, World Rugby must establish that, even though the Player did not have exclusive control over the car, the Player knew about the anabolic steroids and intended to have control over them. Similarly, in the example of anabolic steroids found in a home medicine cabinet under the joint control of a Player and spouse, World Rugby must establish that the Player knew the anabolic steroids were in the cabinet and that the Player intended to exercise control over them. The act of purchasing a Prohibited Substance alone constitutes Possession, even where, for example, the product does not arrive, is received by someone else, or is sent to a third-party address.]

[7]     [Comment to Protected Person: The Code treats Protected Persons differently than other Players or Persons in certain circumstances based on the understanding that, below a certain age or intellectual capacity, a Player or other Person may not possess the mental capacity to understand and appreciate the prohibitions against conduct contained in the Code. This would include, for example, a Paralympic Player with a documented lack of legal capacity due to an intellectual impairment. The term “open category” is meant to exclude competition that is limited to junior or age group categories.]

[8]     [Comment to Provisional Hearing: A Provisional Hearing is only a preliminary proceeding which may not involve a full review of the facts of the case. Following a Provisional Hearing, the Player remains entitled to a subsequent full hearing on the merits of the case. By contrast, an “expedited hearing”, as that term is used in Regulation 21.7.4.3, is a full hearing on the merits conducted on an expedited time schedule.]

[9]     [Comment to Recreational Player: The term “open category” is meant to exclude competition that is limited to junior or age group categories.]

[10]     [Comment to Sample or Specimen: It has sometimes been claimed that the collection of blood Samples violates the tenets of certain religious or cultural groups. It has been determined that there is no basis for any such claim.]

[11]   [Comment to Tampering: For example, this Regulation would prohibit altering identification numbers on a Doping Control form during Testing, breaking the B bottle at the time of B Sample analysis, altering a Sample by the addition of a foreign substance, or intimidating or attempting to intimidate a potential witness or a witness who has provided testimony or information in the Doping Control process. Tampering includes misconduct which occurs during the Results Management and hearing process. See Regulation 21.10.9.3.3. However, actions taken as part of a Person's legitimate defense to an anti-doping rule violation charge shall not be considered Tampering. Offensive conduct towards a Doping Control official or other Person involved in Doping Control which does not otherwise constitute Tampering shall be addressed in the disciplinary rules of sport organisations.]

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